Born in Cleveland, Ohio. Education: Cleveland, Ohio: public schools; early (piano and theory) training with Dorothy Smith and Mina Eichenbaum. Glenville High School, private voice with John Howard Tucker. Oberlin, Ohio: Oberlin College Conservatory of Music, composition with Herbert Elwell and Joseph Wood; voice with Robert Fountain; and piano with Emil Danenberg, B.M.E., 1955. New York, N.Y.: composition privately with Robert Starer, 1959 and Vittorio Giannini, 1960. Long Beach, California: California State University, composition with Leon Dallin and Robert Tyndall, M.Mus., 1967. Columbus, Ohio: Ohio State University, composition with Marshall Barnes, 1968-73, Ph.D.. Lawrence, Kansas: University of Kansas. [post-grad] orchestration with Edward Mattila, 1974 . Cleveland, Ohio: Cleveland Institute of Music, [ post-grad] orchestration with Eugene O'Brien and (privately) Marcel Dick, 1978-83.